Other questions to be asked and to be studied in a larger context:Why do we want to Rewild Europe? In this article 5 reasons are mentioned why we should rewild? The main reasons are for increasing biodiversity, for Self-Sustaining Systems, for the protection of certain species from extinction, and for human benefits (eco-tourism/to rewild ourselves and for commercial reasons as employment/exploitation) and rewilding for aesthetics, the beauty and enchantment it brings to the world.
Rewilding could be included in a global
sustainable development agenda as a way to solve environmental issues as biodiversity
extinctions, impoverishment of soils because of intensive agriculture, or as a tool for climate
mitigation through carbon capture (Pereira & Navarro, 2015). The compromises of rewilding
The ethics of releasing domesticated animals in the wild
There is proof that Konik horses are not real descendants of the wild horse.
Ethical aspects of creating/maintaining biodiversity
Setting aside half the Earth for ‘rewilding’: the ethical dimension
In this view, we care about nature and biodiversity only because we care about ourselves. Nature is useful for us in the sense of resources and ecological services, but it has no value in and of itself. In ethics talk, people have intrinsic value while nature’s only value is what it can do for people – extrinsic value.
Ethical aspects of culling
In some cases human
perception of how wilderness looks can be different from the result of rewilding (Hall, 2014).
Especially when animals are used in rewilding projects, to serve as ecosystem engineers
delivering a suite of ecosystem services, the open-endedness of such experiments means that
the projects may not necessarily produce the desired outcome in the view of managers’. This,
in turn, can impact upon ethical or animal welfare issues where the wildlife is culled,
removed, relocated or otherwise interfered with (Jamieson, 2008; Von Essen & Allen, 2016),
as demonstrated in the English beaver case.
Ethical aspects of de-extinction
It is important to note that other interpretations exist in rewilding, indeed, some rewilding projects emphasize mainly passive management and self-management of nature without any or limited human intervention, when others focus on bringing back extinct species through sophisticated genetic reverse-engineering, like back-breeding, and de-extinction technologies in laboratories. These often try to approximate the Pleistocene baseline. These rewilding ideas have been popularised amongst others by Ted Talks (TedxDeExtinction, 2013; Ted Ed, 2014), and these extincted animals are usually megafauna. They are charismatic and iconic animals like the wooly mammuth. These kinds of projects have popularized the idea of rewilding for the mainstream public but have also made it controversial since it links rewilding with controversial practices of cloning for example. In rewilding exotic or extinct megafauna, public enthusiasm is particularly important since potential revived species are highly charismatic animals that are linked to our imagination of prehistoric times and our willingness to fund, endorse or otherwise visit such sites/projects. While the argument for de-extinction are several, like for restoring ecosystems, one of the biggest arguments is the wonder it creates, “The last benefit might be called “wonder,” or, more colloquially “coolness.” This may be the biggest attraction, and possibly the biggest benefit, of de-extinction. It would surely be very cool to see a living wooly mammoth.” (Sherkow & Greely, 2013, p. 33) The compromises of rewilding
Critics of de-extinction in the popular science media have quickly pointed out drawbacks. From an ethical perspective, they have pointed to potential violations of animal welfare standards, the potential drain on resources that could be used in the conservation of still-existing species, and the implication that species destruction might be seen as permissible if it is reversible.
Educating Ethics and animals
Giving the wrong exemple ...
Resistance from the local population
Ethics in wild life parks